Antimicrobial Peptide Database
The Antimicrobial Peptide Database (APD) contains 3425 antimicrobial peptides from six life kingdoms (385 isolated/predicted bacteriocins/peptide antibiotics from bacteria, 5 from archaea, 8 from protists, 25 from fungi, 368 from plants, and 2489 from animals, including some synthetic peptides) with the following activity:

This original database for antimicrobial peptides is manually curated based on a set of data-collection criteria. There are 147 human host defense peptides, 352 from mammals annotated, 1148 active peptides from amphibians (1070 from frogs and 74 from toads), 140 fish peptides, 45 reptile peptides, 43 from birds, 600 from arthropods, [339 from insects, 73 from crustaceans, 8 from myriapods, 180 from chelicerata, (44 from spiders, 93 from scorpions)], 47 from molluscs, 6 AMPs from protozoa, and more.

Of the 450 unique NMR/X-ray diffracted 3D structures annotated for host defense peptides in the APD, 321 with coordinates deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) can be directly rotated, zoomed, and viewed. Top left: Amphibian α-helical magainin II; Top right: bovine β-sheet lactoferricin; Bottom left: plant αβ-PsD1; Bottom right: bovine non-αβ indolicidin.

This comprehensive database consists of a pipeline of search functions for innate immune peptides. You can search for peptide information using APD ID, peptide name, amino acid sequence, peptide motif, chemical modification, length, charge, hydrophobic content, PDB ID, 3D structure, methods for structural determination, peptide source organism, peptide family name, life domain/kingdom (bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi, plants, animals), biological activity (see the links above), synergistic effects, target microbes, molecular targets, mechanism of action, contributing authors, and year of publication.

Note: For the updated information for this page, please search the APD.


[1] Wang, G., Li, X. and Wang, Z. (2016) APD3: the antimicrobial peptide database as a tool for research and education. Nucleic Acids Research 44, D1087-D1093. Paper PDF
[2] Wang, G., Li, X. and Wang, Z. (2009) APD2: the updated antimicrobial peptide database and its application in peptide design. Nucleic Acids Research 37, D933-D937. Paper PDF
[3] Wang, Z. and Wang, G. (2004) APD: the antimicrobial peptide database. Nucleic Acids Research 32, D590-D592. Paper PDF
Last updated: June 30, 2022 | Copyright 2003-2022 Dept of Pathology & Microbiology, UNMC, All Rights Reserved

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