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Timeline of Antimicrobial Peptide Discovery

Year
Representative AMPs Selected by the APD3 Database
1922
Lysozyme discovered by Alexander Fleming (suggested by Robert Lehrer). This discovery declares the birth of modern innate immunity (Richard Gallo). Note that in 1928, Fleming also discovered penicillin, the first antibiotic in human history.

1928
Nisin (only antibacterial activity was noticed in 1928 and the structure determination was a long journey)

1939
Gramicidin A, B and C (bacteria), the first peptide antibiotic used clinically

1942
Purothionins found from plants

1944
Gramicidin S, the first circular peptide antibiotic discovered from bacteria and used clinically to treat wounds (earlier literature in Russian)

1947
Polymyxin/colistin (bacteria), the last resort to treat resistant Gram-negative superbugs

1967
Melittin (insects) established as an AMP

1970
Bombinin (amphibians)

1973
Plant Kalata B1 (identified as a uterotonic drug)

1974
purified alpha and beta Purothionins active (plants)

1979
Mastoparan

1981
silk moth Cecropins

1985
Human alpha defensins (HNP1); Microcin

1986
Enterocin AS-48(the first circular AMP from bacteria), Pardaxins 1-3 (identified), Daptomycin

1987
frog Magainin

1988
Horseshoe crab Tachyplesin, Human histatin, Bactenecin (the first cathelicidin)

1989
Apidaecins; horseshoe crab Polyphemusin, HNP4, Patellamide

1990
bacterial Duramycin, Gamma-thionin (i.e. plant defensin)

1991
pig cathelicidin PR-39, TAP (the first beta defensin)

1992
human HD5, frog Brevinin, bovine Indolicidin, Mersacidin (known smallest lantibiotic), bacterial Microcin J25

1993
human HD6, Bovine beta defensins, pig Protegrin, amphibian Caerin, plant antifungal peptides

1994
Amphibian Dermaseptin, Esculentin, Avian defensin, Protozoan amoebapore

1995
Human cathelicidin, hBD-1

1996
LL-37; Temporin, Thanatin, Buforin, Uperin, Mytilin, Pardaxin 4 (antibacterial activity detected)

1997
Clavanin, Styelin, hBD-2

1998
Lactoferrin, Ranaturin, Maculatin, Lycotoxin, Granulysin

1999
Circulin, RTD-1 (Theta-defensin or θ-defensin, a small circular protein from animals), Kalata B1 (a prototype plant cyclotide is established as an AMP)

2000
thrombocidin (the first antimicrobial chemokine), Aurein, rCRAMP, Palustrin, the first gly-rich Shepherins from plants

2001
hBD-3, hBD-4, Ponericin, Dermcidin, Piscidin 1 (first AMP from mast cells)

2002
human RNase 7; Maximin, Hepcidin, Cupiennin, Retrocyclin, Halocidin

2003
Daptomycin is approved by FDA as a new antibiotic. human angiogenins, human chemokine (e.g. CCL20), Alo-1, Circularin A, PhD1, Halocin C8 (archaeocins)

2004
Arenicin, Brazzein, Ascaphin, Caenacin (Gly-rich)

2005
human psoriasin (S100A7), Plectasin, Phylloseptin

2006
human RNase 8; Latarcin, Cycloviolacin, Lividin

2007
Dybowskin, Pleurain, Hyposin, Odorranain, AvBD, Longicin

2008
human RNase 3; BTD, Vibi

2009
cn-AMP, Kassinatuerin, Lasioglossin, Lichennicidin, Myxinidin

2010
Caenopore-5, Lucifensin, Temporin-SHf, Centrocin, Beta-amyloid peptide, Thuricin CD

2011
LCI (no disulfide bond beta sheet), Glycocin F (class 4 bacteriocin is found), frog cathelicidin-AL, PAM1

2012
Geobacillin I (7 thioether rings), uncyclotide ChaC7 (i.e open chained), Microcin S (103AA), Slerocin, fungal Eurocin, fungal Micasin, human keratin-derived AMPs

2013
human beta defensin 114 (DEFB114), Protozoan Acanthaporin with a unique fold

2014
2-residue lipopeptide Gageotetrin A; fungal defensin copsin; human RNase 6; Human alpha defensin HD-6 is established as an AMP; BacFL31; Baceridin; Lassomycin; sonorensin; EcAMP3; Hispidalin; Crotalicidin. Highlighted in Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

2015
i-chip identified Teixobactin; BnPRP1 (Pro-rich from plants); Ep-AMP1; cOB1 from a commensal bacterium

2016
cPcAMP1/26, a unique sequence from protist; MjPen-II (a multiple domain AMP); TLN-58, another form of human cathelicidin


Acknowledgements: We thank Michael Zasloff and Robert Lehrer for suggestions.





First Established: March 2012 | updated March 30, 2017 | Copyright 2003-2017 Dept of Pathology & Microbiology, UNMC All Rights Reserved
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