Antimicrobial Peptide AP00499

     
 

APD ID:

AP00499

 
 

Name/Class:

Gramicidin A (gA, Trp-rich; Val-rich; Leu-rich; Gram-positive bacteria, prokaryotes; nonribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotic; ZZHb; ZZS; XXD5; BBMm)

 
 

Source:

soil bacterium, Bacillus brevis

 
 

Sequence:

VGALAVVVWLWLWLW

 
 

Length:

15

 
 

Net charge:

0

 
 

Hydrophobic residue%:

93%

 
 

Boman Index:

-3.31 kcal/mol

 
 

3D Structure:

Helix

 
 

Method:

NMR

 
 

SwissProt ID:

PDB ID: 1MAG   Go to PDB

 
 

Activity:

Anti-Gram+ & Gram-, Antiviral, Spermicidal, Anti-HIV,

 
 

Additional info:

Isolated in 1939, it is the first peptide antibiotic used clinically but it is only used topically (AMPs in use). Synthesized non-ribosomally by a multienzyme complex. Both the N- and C-termini are chemically modified (CHO at the N-terminus and NHCH2CH2OH at the C-terminus). N-terminus is rich in Val, while the C-terminus is rich in Trp. Amino acids 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 are D-amino acids, allowing the formation of a special helical structure that head-to-head dimerizes into a cation channel in lipid bilayer with the C-terminus exposed (Ketchem RR et al 1996 J Biomol NMR 8: 1). You can rotate, zoom, and view the 3D structure here in the PDB . Structures solved in organic solvents by x-ray diffraction are believed to be non-channel forms. This peptide shows effects on HIV and HSV infections (Arch Virol 1997; 142: 2225-35). Updated 2/2012; Jan2018; 6/2019.

 
       
 

Title:

STUDIES ON A BACTERICIDAL AGENT EXTRACTED FROM A SOIL BACILLUS : I. PREPARATION OF THE AGENT. ITS ACTIVITY IN VIT

 
 

Author:

Dubos RJ1939

 
 

Reference:

J Exp Med. 1939 Jun 30;70(1):1-10

 
       

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