Antimicrobial Peptide AP00146

     
 

APD ID:

AP00146

 
 

Name/Class:

Melittin (XXA; insects, arthropods, invertebrates, animals; ZZHa, StrAR, BBL; ZZP; BBMm)

 
 

Source:

Honeybee venom, Apis mellifera (also A. florea, A. cerana)

 
 

Sequence:

GIGAVLKVLTTGLPALISWIKRKRQQ

 
 

Length:

26

 
 

Net charge:

6

 
 

Hydrophobic residue%:

46%

 
 

Boman Index:

0.57 kcal/mol

 
 

3D Structure:

Helix

 
 

Method:

X-Ray

 
 

SwissProt ID:

PDB ID: 2MLT   Go to PDB

 
 

Activity:

Anti-Gram+ & Gram-, Antiviral, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Insecticidal, Anti-HIV, Hemolytic, Anticancer

 
 

Crucial residues:

K7 and W19 are important for activity.

 
 

Additional info:

Active against E. coli D21, B. megaterium BmII, S. aureus Cowan 1 (MIC 0.2-0.8 uM) (Ref. AP83). Also active against colistin-resistant A. baumannii. C. albicans (MIC 3-6 uM) (ref, see AP2411) and HSV-1, HSV-2 (Yasin et al., 2000). It is also insecticidal (EC50 5.9 pmol/mg fly). A similar sequence was reported to be active against L. panamensis (Perez-Cordero JJ et al. 2011 Peptides in press). It forms a tetramer at high peptide concentrations or high salt concentrations in the crystal. Melittin contains a helical structure (residues 2-25) with a bend between residues 11-15 (Kreil, 1973). You can rotate, zoom, and view the tetrameric crystal structure here in the PDB . Warning: this structure may not represent the membrane-bound form. A P14A mutation removed the bend but became 2.5-fold more hemolytic. MOA: It inhibits HIV by suppressing viral gene expression (J Gen Virol 1998; 79:731-40). Found in multiple species. It is also hemolytic (98% at 100 uM) and can cause histamine releasing (85% at 10 uM) (Kawakami et al., 2017). Updated 2/2014; 6/2014. Ref updated 3/2015; 5/2017; 6/2018 GW.

 
       
 

Title:

Antibacterial action of a bee venom fraction (melittin) against a penicillin-resistant staphylococcus and other microorganisms. USNRDL-TR-67-101.

 
 

Author:

Fennell JF, Shipman WH, Cole LJ.1967

 
 

Reference:

Res Dev Tech Rep. 1967 Dec 5:1-13.Pub-Med.

 
       

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