Antimicrobial Peptide AP00102






Thanatin ("thanato" means death; insects, arthropods, invertebrates, animals; UCSS1a; 1S=S; BBL; Derivatives: S-thanatin)



Podisus maculiventris








Net charge:



Hydrophobic residue%:



Boman Index:

2.81 kcal/mol


3D Structure:






SwissProt ID:

PDB ID: 8TFV   Go to PDB



Anti-Gram+ & Gram-, Antiviral, Antifungal, anti-sepsis,


Crucial residues:

The S-S bridge; C-terminal Met


Additional info:

Disulfide Bridge Between C11 and C18. Disulfide-bridge formation is indispensable for antimicrobial activity and is closely related to the activity specificity towards bacteria (Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 May 2;369(2):609-15). The S-S bond is also important for salt tolerance and for pore formation in membranes. C-terminal amidation had little effect. However, P. aeruginosa is 8-fold more sentive to the C-terminally amidated form. Antimicrobial activity decreases with the removel of more and more N-terminal residues (3 to 9). An all-D-enantiomer is almost inactive against Gram- bacteria but is fully active against fungi and some Gram+ bacteria, suggesting microbe-dependent mechanisms of action. Thanatin is not hemolytic. A hairpin-like structure was found in solution (Mandard et al 1998 Eur J Biochem 256: 404). You can rotate, zoom, and view the 3D structure here in the PDB. A T15S mutant (S-thanatin) binds LPS. MOA: in 2019, it is found that thanatin can compete for LPS with divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, which are essential for membrane integrity. It also binds to the NDM-1 mettllo-beta-lactamase to replace Zn2+, inhibiting the hydrolase activity of this pathogen enzyme. This peptide also sensitizes the activity of antibiotics (Ma B et al., 2019). Trangenic plants: the thanatin transformant acquired a sufficient level of resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, presumably due to the repressive activity of thanatin to its initial stage of infection (Imamura T et al. 2010 Transgenic Res. 19:415-24). Recombinant thanatin is also active against Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) (Sabokkhiz MA et al. 2019). Updated 6/2010; 4/2019; 8/2019.



Structure-activity analysis of thanatin, a 21-residue inducible insect defense peptide with sequence homology to frog skin antimicrobial peptides



Fehlbaum P, Bulet P, Chernysh S, Briand JP, Roussel JP, Letellier L, Hetru C, Hoffmann JA.1996



Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Feb 6;93(3):1221-5. PubMed.


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