Antimicrobial Peptide AP00102

     
 

APD ID:

AP00102

 
 

Name/Class:

Thanatin ("thanato" means death; insects, arthropods, invertebrates, animals; UCSS1a; 1S=S; BBL; Derivatives: S-thanatin)

 
 

Source:

Podisus maculiventris

 
 

Sequence:

GSKKPVPIIYCNRRTGKCQRM

 
 

Length:

21

 
 

Net charge:

6

 
 

Hydrophobic residue%:

28%

 
 

Boman Index:

2.81 kcal/mol

 
 

3D Structure:

Beta

 
 

Method:

NMR

 
 

SwissProt ID:

PDB ID: 8TFV   Go to PDB

 
 

Activity:

Anti-Gram+ & Gram-, Antiviral, Antifungal,

 
 

Crucial residues:

The S-S bridge; C-terminal Met

 
 

Additional info:

Disulfide Bridge Between C11 and C18. Disulfide-bridge formation is indispensable for antimicrobial activity and is closely related to the activity specificity towards bacteria (Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 May 2;369(2):609-15). The S-S bond is also important for salt tolerance and for pore formation in membranes. C-terminal amidation had little effect. However, P. aeruginosa is 8-fold more sentive to the C-terminally amidated form. Antimicrobial activity decreases with the removel of more and more N-terminal residues (3 to 9). An all-D-enantiomer is almost inactive against Gram- bacteria but is fully active against fungi and some Gram+ bacteria, suggesting microbe-dependent mechanisms of action. Thanatin is not hemolytic. A hairpin-like structure was found in solution (Mandard et al 1998 Eur J Biochem 256: 404). You can rotate, zoom, and view the 3D structure here in the PDB. A T15S mutant (S-thanatin) binds LPS. MOA: in 2019, it is found that thanatin can compete for LPS with divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, which are essential for membrane integrity. It also binds to the NDM-1 mettllo-beta-lactamase to replace Zn2+, inhibiting the hydrolase activity of this pathogen enzyme. This peptide also sensitizes the activity of antibiotics (Ma B et al., 2019). Trangenic plants: the thanatin transformant acquired a sufficient level of resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, presumably due to the repressive activity of thanatin to its initial stage of infection (Imamura T et al. 2010 Transgenic Res. 19:415-24). Recombinant thanatin is also active against Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) (Sabokkhiz MA et al. 2019). Updated 6/2010; 4/2019; 8/2019.

 
       
 

Title:

Structure-activity analysis of thanatin, a 21-residue inducible insect defense peptide with sequence homology to frog skin antimicrobial peptides

 
 

Author:

Fehlbaum P, Bulet P, Chernysh S, Briand JP, Roussel JP, Letellier L, Hetru C, Hoffmann JA.1996

 
 

Reference:

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Feb 6;93(3):1221-5. PubMed.

 
       

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